Evidence on equitable access

The following resources provide further information on equitable delivery of vaccination programmes and address vaccine confidence.

An inclusive approach to flu and COVID-19 vaccination service delivery in Scotland: Recommendations (2020 and 2021)

Public Health Scotland has released a report that provides a range of recommendations to ensure people across Scotland have equitable access to vaccination services. The overall aim is to reduce inequalities.

View the report on An inclusive approach to flu and COVID-19 vaccination service delivery in Scotland: Recommendations

Extended flu and COVID-19 vaccination health inequalities impact assessment (HIIA)

This engagement and consultation report identifies any barriers to the uptake of the flu vaccination across the current population groups and potential actions to address these. It also highlights potential barriers for population groups for the COVID-19 vaccination.

View the health inequalities impact assessment (HIIA)

COVID-19 vaccine uptake: NHS Confederation (2021)

Factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine uptake among minority groups: NHS Confederation (2021)

An approach to combat barriers to vaccine uptake among minority ethnic groups.

View the NHS Confederation briefing (external website).

COVID-19 and influenza vaccine confidence: Vaccine Confidence Project & London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (2020)

A webinar that provides an overview of the challenges posed by co-epidemics such as seasonal influenza and COVID-19, reflecting on lessons learnt from the previous H1N1 pandemic. 

View the Vaccine Confidence Project webinar (external website).

Interventions to improve engagement with immunisation programmes in selected underserved populations: NHS Health Scotland (2019)

Underserved populations experience significant health inequalities. They are often under-vaccinated and therefore have a greater risk of vaccine-preventable diseases.

NHS Health Scotland published an evidence review that considers interventions focused on people from deprived areas, people whose first language is not English, people with learning disabilities and Gypsy/Traveller communities.

View the Interventions to improve engagement with immunisation programmes in selected underserved populations study (external website).

Interventions to engage people aged 60 years and over in influenza, shingles and pneumococcal immunisation programmes: NHS Health Scotland (2020)

NHS Health Scotland published a study looking at interventions to improve uptake of flu, shingles and pneumococcal immunisation programmes among adults aged 60 years and older.

This indicates that patient access to vaccination and uptake can benefit from:

  • patient outreach, such as home visits
  • delivery of vaccines through pharmacy-based services
  • reminders to patients, such as letters, postcards or phone calls

View the Interventions to engage people aged 60 years and over in influenza, shingles and pneumococcal immunisation programmes study (external website).

TIP: Tailoring Immunization Programmes: World Health Organization (2019)

The WHO has published an approach for achieving high and equitable vaccine uptake in an area by addressing barriers to vaccination. The Tailoring Immunisation Programmes (TIP) approach is founded on three main pillars:

  1. six values and principles
  2. a theoretical model
  3. a phased process with detailed exercises

The phases and steps of a TIP process are described in detail in this publication, supported by inspiration examples and exercises for TIP planning workshops.

View the WHO Tailoring Immunization Programme (TIP) approach (external website).

Last updated: 06 October 2022